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Can women pray in congregation without male leadership?
there are many women in our country who get together in one house to discuss and teach Islamic subjects. At the end of the discussion, without the male leadership, one woman raises her hand and prays, and everyone else says Amen with her prayer(Dua). I want to know whether it is permissible in Islam for women to raise their hands in the form of a congregation for praying? And what is the SUNNAT way for women for praying? I will be grateful if I get a reference to the authentic book, Insha-Allah.
asked Feb 15 in Innovations by Tahsin Ahmed Miraz

1 Answer

Ref. No. 1323/42-739

In the name of Allah the most Gracious the most Merciful

The answer to your question is as follows:

Women’s prayer (salah) in congregation:

It is makrooh (disliked in Islam) for women to offer their prayers in congregation without a man leadership (imamat). The main rule for women about prayers is that they should offer prayers alone in the house as well as if a man is leading the prayers at home, women can join them in the congregation. Likewise, sometimes women gather in a house for religious purposes and they pray in congregation, then there will not be any sin in doing so as a Hadith also shows its authentication. In that case, the leading woman will not stand in front of the women as a man does; rather, she will stand in the middle of the first row. Nevertheless, it is Makrooh for women to make a routine or system for the congregation of women. However, in the era of the Prophet (saws) and his companions, there is an evidence of individual congregational prayers for women only, but there is no evidence of establishing a formal system of congregation for women only, without a male leadership.

Women’s prayer (dua) in congregation:

There is no difference between men and women in making dua. dua should be made individually. And if there is a gathering at a place, then making dua collectively is proven in some circumstances. In the same way, women should pray dua alone, but if there is a gathering of women in a place and there are no men and the voice doesn’t go out of the place then it is permissible for a woman to make dua and other women to say Ameen to it. But it is not suitable to make it customary. The sunnah way of making dua is the same for both men and women. If a woman makes dua in a gathering of women while other women say Ameen to it, there no reason to invalidate the same.

"عن عائشۃ رضي اللّٰہ عنہا أن رسول اللّٰہ صلی اللّٰہ علیہ وسلم قال: لا خیر فی جماعۃ النساء الخ۔ (رواہ الامام أحمد في مسند ۶؍۱۵۴)۔فعلم أن جماعة النساء  وحدهن مکروهة". (إعلاء السنن، باب صفات المؤذن، ٢ /   ١۴٧  ،  ادارة القرآن و العلوم الاسلامية) عن علي بن أبي طالب رضي اللّٰه عنه أنه قال: لاتؤم المرأة. قلت: رجاله کلهم ثقات". (إعلاء السنن،  باب كراهة جماعة النساء، ۴ / ٢٤٣، ط: إدارة القرآن و العلوم الإسلامية) تنویر الابصار مع الدر المختار میں ہے:"(وَ) يُكْرَهُ تَحْرِيمًا (جَمَاعَةُ النِّسَاءِ) وَلَوْ التَّرَاوِيحَ فِي غَيْرِ صَلَاةِ جِنَازَةٍ (لِأَنَّهَا لَمْ تُشْرَعْ مُكَرَّرَةً) ، فَلَوْ انْفَرَدْنَ تَفُوتُهُنَّ بِفَرَاغِ إحْدَاهُنَّ؛ ... (فَإِنْ فَعَلْنَ تَقِفُ الْإِمَامُ وَسَطَهُنَّ) فَلَوْ قُدِّمَتْ أَثِمَتْ"."(قَوْلُهُ: وَيُكْرَهُ تَحْرِيمًا) صَرَّحَ بِهِ فِي الْفَتْحِ وَالْبَحْرِ (قَوْلُهُ: وَلَوْ فِي التَّرَاوِيحِ) أَفَادَ أَنَّ الْكَرَاهَةَ فِي كُلِّ مَا تُشْرَعُ فِيهِ جَمَاعَةُ الرِّجَالِ فَرْضًا أَوْ نَفْلًا ... (قَوْلُهُ: فَلَوْ تَقَدَّمَتْ) أَثِمَتْ. أَفَادَ أَنَّ وُقُوفَهَا وَسَطَهُنَّ وَاجِبٌ، كَمَا صَرَّحَ بِهِ فِي الْفَتْحِ، وَأَنَّ الصَّلَاةَ صَحِيحَةٌ، وَأَنَّهَا إذَا تَوَسَّطَتْ لَاتَزُولُ الْكَرَاهَةُ، وَإِنَّمَا أَرْشَدُوا إلَى التَّوَسُّطِ؛ لِأَنَّهُ أَقَلُّ كَرَاهِيَةً مِنْ التَّقَدُّمِ، كَمَا فِي السِّرَاجِ بَحْرٌ". (رد المحتار ، كتاب الصلاة، باب الامامة، ١ / ٥٦٥ - ٥٦٦، ط: دار الفكر، 2/306،مطبوعہ زکریا)۔ حَدَّثَنَا وَكِيعٌ، عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي لَيْلَى، عَنْ عَطَاءٍ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، أَنَّهَا كَانَتْ تَؤُمُّ النِّسَاءَ تَقُومُ مَعَهُنَّ فِي الصَّفِّ(مصنف ابن ابی شیبۃ،باب المرأۃ  تؤالنساء، 1/430 حدیث نمبر، 4954- عَنْ قَتَادَةَ، عَنْ أُمِّ الْحَسَنِ، أَنَّهَا رَأَتْ أُمَّ سَلَمَةَ زَوْجَ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: تَؤُمُّ النِّسَاءَ تَقُومُ مَعَهُنَّ فِي صَفِّهِنَّ (مصنف ابن ابی شیبۃ ،باب المرأۃ  تؤالنساء، 1/430 حدیث نمبر، 4953))

And Allah knows best

 

Darul Ifta

Darul Uloom Waqf Deoband

answered Mar 10 by Darul Ifta
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